The Yorkshire Terrier, or “Yorkie” for short, is the most popular toy dog breed due to their loving, active and cheerful attitude. While outstanding companions and lap dogs, you may be wondering if the small toy breed is actually intelligent.
Yorkshire Terriers are very intelligent dogs. And according to canine psychologist Stanley Coren, a Yorkie is above-average intelligent. In fact, they’re the 34th smartest dog breed for “obedience and working intelligence.” But even so, the Yorkie’s true intelligence comes from their superior abilities to understand human emotions and communicate effectively.
Though Yorkies are some of the best when it comes to obedience training and learning, they are smart in other ways. In fact, the Yorkshire Terrier excels in all three components of dog intelligence. Let’s examine what actually makes Yorkies super-smart dogs.
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How We Measure a Yorkie’s Intelligence
As mentioned, there’s no denying that Yorkshire Terriers are overall a very intelligent breed. But just how exactly did the “experts” come to this conclusion? In other words, how are we able to measure the true dog intelligence of the Yorkie?
The smartest dog breeds list was developed by famed pHD and canine psychologist, Stanley Coren. In his research, he coined the term “obedience & working intelligence,” which measured how quickly a dog learns command. It also measures how well they retain their training.
Coren reached out to 199 North American obedience trial judges, who helped evaluate and rank dog breeds based on his criteria. This criteria measured obedience & working intelligence, which could be objectively ranked in a list of smartest dogs.
Coren’s Dog Intelligence Criteria
The criteria that Coren used for his research was met with a lot of criticism, and rightfully so. And while it doesn’t tell the full story of measuring dog intelligence, we think it’s a great starting point. Here’s what his criteria was based on:
- The number of repetitions needed for a dog breed to learn a new command. Obviously, the fewer the repetitions needed, the smarter the dog breed.
- The success rate of a dog breed obeying a known command on the first attempt. The higher the success rate, the more obedient and intelligent the dog – at least according to Coren.
Coren received a huge response from the trial judges – much larger than he had expected. However, not every dog breed qualified for his smartest dog breeds list.
For example, only dog breeds that received at least 100 evaluations were included in his final list. This ruled out the rarer breeds where Coren couldn’t find enough dogs, and thus data. Fortunately, Yorkies were widely popular dogs and had more than 100 assessments.
In addition, only dog breeds recognized by the AKC and CKC participated in the trials. So this meant that breeds recognized by international clubs, along with mixed dog breeds, didn’t participate. The good news is that the Yorkie is recognized by both clubs.
How the Yorkies Performed
Yorkshire Terriers performed better than average. As a matter of fact, they performed better than over 100 breeds in the trial, landing them in the 34th spot our of 138 breeds. Being in the top 40 isn’t easy. But what exactly does this rank mean for the Yorkie?
This meant that Yorkies were able to learn a new command with just 15 to 25 repetitions. You can probably teach your Yorkshire a new command in a just a few hours. For the most basic commands, it could take a shorter amount of time!
Not only are they quick learners, but also highly obedient dogs, as given by their obedience score. Yorkies were able to obey a known command on the first attempt with a 70% or better success rate! Few dogs are as obedient as the Yorkshire Terrier.
And if you’re curious, the Yorkshire terrier is in the same intelligence class as Dalmatians, Samoyeds, Newfoundlands, Giant Schnauzers, Samoyed and Bearded Collies. All of which, are considered to be smart dogs. Not bad company to be with.
Yorkies vs. The Smartest Dog Breeds
Though Yorkies are really smart, there’s a significant difference between their obedience & working intelligence and that of the top 10. The top ten smartest dog breeds are conveniently in a class of their own. So just how smart are the best in the class?
The smartest dogs are able to learn a new command with just 5 repetitions or less! That’s at least 3 times faster than the Yorkshire Terrier. And depending on the command, it may just take them a few minutes to learn!
What I find even more impressive is how obedient the smartest breeds are. They’re able to obey a known command on the first attempt with a 95% or higher success rate! Over 9 out of 10 times, these dogs will obey a command in the first try!
2 More Reasons Why Yorkies Are Smart
Yorkshire Terriers are regarded as some of the most intelligent dogs. But there’s so much more to dog IQ than just obedience and working intelligence. Even Stanley Coren, the one who developed the criteria for O&W intelligence, will admit this.
The other two dimensions of dog intelligence are: instinctive and adaptive intelligence. Both of which, are aspects of IQ that Yorkies excel in. And in my opinion, these two other components of IQ are even more important in identifying the true intelligence of dogs.
So why not use these other two IQ dimensions instead? The problem with both instinctive and adaptive IQ is that they are a lot more difficult to measure – at least in an objective way. Even so, it’s important to understand these two if we’re talking about dog intelligence.
1. The Yorkie’s instinctive intelligence in hunting
Instinctive intelligence refers the the innate ability or skill that was bred into the dog. For example, what was the original intention for the dog breed? What were they bred for? In the past, all dogs were bred for a specific purpose or role that helped humans.
For instance, Shelties are some of the best herding dogs in the world. Their innate ability to round up sheep, guide them in formations and push them around, requires instinctive intelligence. They were not taught this, they just knew how to do this.
On the other hand, Yorkies were originally bred to be be hunters. Yes you heard right – these little dogs were at one point in time, hunting dogs. To be specific, Yorkies were bred to be ratters (vermin hunters) in mines because they’re small enough to reach into small crevices.
Well yesterday after her potty break she runs to investigate and sniff. I am standing on the porch half awake, calling her, begging her really…All of the sudden I hear her freak out and she is shaking a BIG FAT RAT!– LuvTaycieGirl (Yorkie Talk)
In addition, Yorkies actually participated in actual hunts by burrowing underground to chase after foxes or badgers. This is pure instincts. Even today, some Yorkies may have the tendency to chase down small rodents despite the breed being mainly lap dogs.
But how is hunting a type of intelligence? Well, Yorkies (and other vermin hunters) need to have a sense of where the rats are going. In a head-on chase, it’ll be very difficult to catch the rat. However, a Yorkie is skilled in understanding how to cut off the rat in its path.
In other words, hunting and flushing is the instinctive intelligence of the Yorkshire Terrier. And since they’re exceptionally good at this job, we can probably conclude that the Yorkshire Terriers have high instinctive intelligence.
2. The Yorkie’s ability to communicate shows high adaptive intelligence
Adaptive intelligence is the other dimension of dog intelligence, and refers to the ability of the dog to learn for itself. Does the dog learn from previous mistakes? Is the dog good at problem solving? All of these questions pertain to adaptive intelligence in dogs.
All Yorkies have roughly the same instinctive intelligence. However, adaptive intelligence can vary quite a bit among individual dogs. Just because your neighbor’s Yorkie has outstanding adaptive IQ will not guarantee that your Yorkie will too.
The good news, though, is that Yorkies generally show high adaptive intelligence. And while there is no objective way of measuring this, we can count on owner stories and anecdotes to prove our point.
For example, one owner tells us a story:
Today was bath day and I gave Jewels her bath first. When I went to get Chachi, he was no where to be found. He was hiding because he knew he was next.
Clearly, this Yorkshire Terrier is able to learn from his previous experiences. From past baths, Chachi had made the association of the bath tub with the undesirable consequence of getting a bath. This is a clear sign of high adaptive intelligence.
Another owner explains how great at communicating his Yorkie is, saying:
When I accidentally close the inside door where Cooper can’t come in through the Doggie Door, he will go to the door and bark, and then come to us and bark.
The same owner tells us that his Yorkie will “bark at his food and water bowl when he is out of either.” He adds, “I know he has a million human words that he just wishes he could speak.”
Dogs and humans don’t speak the same language, of course. But this owners’ Yorkie has learned how to get what he wants through verbal cues. Most owners seem to agree on this special ability in their Yorkie. After all, Yorkies are top lap dogs and companions for a reason.
These are just a few stories of how intuitive and adaptable these dogs can be. Ask any Yorkshire Terrier owner and you’ll surely hear the same kind of stories.
Is Your Yorkie Intelligent?
Sometimes, to find answers to questions like these, it’s better to ask the people with the real-life experience. We’re talking about real Yorkshire Terrier owners.
Real Owner Answers:
1. Irishhawk says Yes: “I think Yorkies are incredibly smart, intuitive dogs. My dog seems to be very good at observing my behavior and he can predict my next moves.“
2. Archie says Yes: “I find it scary just how smart these little yorkie dogs are. Living with Buddy is like having a room mate who bosses me around on a daily basis.“
3. Jenniferleigh says Yes: “I always knew Yorkies were smart, but it wasn’t until I had one that I realized how smart they really were.“
4. Mscat says Yes: “My Suzi responds to certain words which makes her understand what I am saying. I have heard that Yorkies are hard to train because they are strong willed. But, that does not mean that they are dumb.“
5. Deandarra says Yes: “My yorkie is far smarter than any dogs that i’ve owned…and i’ve owned a lot. Even compared to my lab, which is supposed to be way smarter.”
6. Jayreddmethod says Yes: “I’m not sure if my Yorkie is a genius…but training her for tricks/commands was the easiest thing ever. Potty training a little more difficult, but not bad at all.”
7. Katyyorkie says Yes: “Buster is very smart. He only needs to be asked one time to do something. Family and friends are amazed at the things he can do especially when is only asked one time.“
8. Jenncannm says Yes: “Pippa is one of the most intuitive yorkies i’ve ever met. She has a very high understanding of whats going on and is super obedient!“
9. Sierrapadre_ says Yes: “They don’t look it but they’re sneaky smart. When you least expect them to understand, they use it to take advantage of the situation! My Yorkies too smart for his own good.”
10. Jensencosmos says Yes: “My yorkie may be a little stubborn and strong willed, but in no scenario can I call her dumb. She’s very understanding on what’s happening, beyond just commands and tricks.“
Smart Toys for Smart Yorkies
Smart dogs aren’t for everybody. In fact, some owners suggest that it’s “easier” to raise a less intelligent dog. Much of this is because smart dog breeds need a lot of mental stimulation, Yorkie included.
Without enough mental stimulation, it could potentially lead to some destructive behavior. While Yorkies may not be able to do much damage, it’s still essential to provide them with their needs.
Unfortunately, not all owners have the time or energy to provide this for their smart dogs. However, a great way to help out is to provide smart toys and dog puzzles for your Yorkie.
Smart toys and puzzles will keep your dogs entertained as they try to “figure out” the toy. As long as you’re supervising or they’re in a crate, it’ll let you catch your breath. Here are some of my favorites.
The Outward Hound Interactive Plush Toy is fantastic for Yorkies. My miniature Aussie absolutely loves this. Plus, it’s a really cute plush toy. It’s a hide and seek toy where the dog has to figure out how to take out the squirrels.
If you want this, make sure to get a small size for your Yorkie. It’s one of the highest rated dog toys on Amazon for a reason.
Another fantastic dog puzzle that my dogs and I love is the Nina Ottosson Dog Puzzle. It’s highly interactive and requires your Yorkie to move away / slide parts to get to the treats! It’ll keep them entertained for quite a while.
I’d highly recommend checking it out at Amazon here. They have a few different variations but I went with this one because it seemed a bit more challenging.
Finally, I recommend the StarMark Bob-A-Lot. Hide your treats (or kibbles) in there and watch as your Yorkie learns to bob the toy in a certain direction.
Not only can it keep your Yorkie mentally active, but it’s also has a dual chamber for both kibbles and treats! Make sure to get a small size at Amazon.
When you’re debating whether to bring back a Yorkie, don’t make your decision based on how intelligent they are. Instead of picking dogs by intelligence, you should be picking them based on temperaments.
Does the dog fit your needs and personality? Yorkies are the ultimate companion and lap dogs. Though small, they have a huge personality. Bring one home and you won’t regret it!
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